Monday, March 12, 2018

The soprano

Several days of blue skies and temperatures above 20 degrees Celsius have uplifted my mood! Spring is coming early this year, it seems. Since the spring harvests are still a few weeks away, I decide to brew a 2017 spring tea that is full of energy, because its leaves have grown on wild puerh trees that have been harvested for the first time last year!

The dry leaves have a wonderful sweet bubble gum scent, not the artificial flavors, but the flavor you get at the end of your chewing! There are many other scents in these leaves. The most difficult is to find the right words to identify them. It's like creative thinking: don't repeat what everyone is saying, but let your mind flow freely without fear of ridicule. There are no wrong answers. Our words are necessarily inadequate and limited to describe the millions of scents that our nose can identify!
I'm brewing this tea with water that is near boiling temperature. Why such a high temperature? The answer is simple with this tea: because that's how I'm getting the most good flavors and an absolutely amazing aftertaste. Not all teas can stand the heat, but this one can and just loves it! Of course, you still need to control your brewing time in accordance with the amount of leaves you're brewing. If you use lots of leaves, your brew quickly risks becoming too concentrated. With fewer leaves, it's easier to control the time to pour the tea, I feel.
Last week, I tried to explain to the organizer of a tea competition that it makes little sense to use 90 degrees Celsius to brew Oolongs. It's like asking to recite the alphabet on a university exam. Everybody knows the ABC! That's not how you'll let the best students stand out. This puerh would loose a lot of its long lasting aftertaste if it were under-brewed. That's why the Dong Ding Oolong competition standard is 3 grams, 150 ml and a 6 minutes brew of boiling water. Most teas won't taste good brewed this way (and should be brewed differently), but those that still taste good are pretty exceptional.
I disgress. Let's come back to my spring 2017 puerh. What I particular like about it -and what might puzzle many puerh drinkers- is how pure it tastes and how long it lingers. If we compare it to music, this would be a song sung by a powerful soprano, whereas many puerhs are blends that feel more like a choral with male and female singers. The notes of this puerh are high and stand alone beautifully.
I'm celebrating this tea with a blue sashiko Chabu (a gift from my gifted mom), a qinghua porcelain bowl, plate and jar, and celadon cups with stand made by David Louveau a few years ago. They are inspired by the shape of Yuan dynasty cups and look like a big flower.
 Spring is coming...

Saturday, March 10, 2018

Southern Branch of the National Palace Museum - Asian Art and Culture Museum

When I first visited the National Palace Museum in Taipei 20 years ago, I remember that there was a saying that the museum had so many treasures that it would take 10 years to show them all if they would rotate their exhibitions every month! With so many artworks on hand, it really made sense to open a second branch of this museum in Taibo, Chiayi county. But before I continue with a description of my visit of this new museum, let me briefly remind my readers where all these treasures come from: the collection of Qing dynasty emperors! In 1925, 14 after the revolution overthrew the last emperor, his palace in the Forbidden city was turned into the National Palace Museum. In the 1930s and 1940s, the Nationalist government moved this collection inland, far away from the Japanese and (later) the Communist armies. In early 1949, the most prized items of this collection arrived on Taiwan as Chang Kai Shek lost the Mainland to the Communists.
Celadon cup and stand, 12th century, Goryeo dynasty (918-1392), Korea
The National Palace Museum in Taipei was modeled on the original Palace in Beijing as a link between Taiwan and China's past. The new museum in Taibo has a modern design that looks like a big boat (next to water) that is linking past and present. And while the National Palace Museum never says it's Chinese, the name of this branch is Asian Art and Culture Museum (my emphasis). This is the explanation for the Korean tea ware you see here. (Most are loans from the Museum of Oriental Ceramics in Osaka, Japan). At a time when Taiwan's identity is in flux, with nationalist and independent parties governing in turns, this broader Asian perspective does make sense politically.
Celadon bowl, first half of 12th century, Goryeo dynasty (918-1392), Korea
For ceramics, it's also interesting to see how China's Tang dynasty has influenced the shape of the above bowl or how Sung dynasty Ru ware (1086-1125) has inspired the stand below (see pages 12-13 in my British Museum visit pdf). And you can find similar stands in Japan's matcha tea ceremony. It would be very interesting to put similar items from different Asian countries next to each other to show the common heritage and the differences that arose in each place. So far, however, most of the ceramic exhibitions don't mix.
Celadon flower shaped stand, first half of 12th century, Goryeo dynasty (918-1392), Korea
There's this room with Korean wares. It also includes beautiful ewers that are decorated very differently compared to China's.
Celadon gourd shape ewer with inlaid chrysanthemum design, 12th century, Goryeo dynasty (918-1392), Korea
And then there is a room with Japanese porcelain. The influence of Jingdezhen is obvious for a trained eye, but it may escape to most visitors.
Porcelain cup and saucer with dragon design in overglaze polychrome enamels, Edo period, 1690-1730s, Arita ware, Japan 
On the positive side, I liked the tall rooms and good artificial lighting in this modern museum. It also doesn't try to show too many art works. There must still be plenty of material to open another branch or two!
Porcelain saucer with design of a pavilion, human figures in overglaze polychrome enamels, Edo period, 1700-1730s, Arita ware, Japan 
It's easy and relatively fast to visit. So, it is a good fit for Chinese tourists on a tour before their 2 hours bus trip to Alishan. This museum acts a magnet for the small city of Chiayi and actively promotes Taiwan's tea industry.
Porcelain teapot in overglaze polychrome enamels, Edo period, 1700-1730s, Arita ware, Japan
One of the last and most interesting room is the 'The Far-Reaching Fragrance of Tea' exhibition. This is where the museum comes closest to its 'Asian culture' purpose by showing tea ware from different countries in the same room. However, that's also where the imbalance in quality between the original Palace Museum collection and wares from other sources is most apparent. Chinese emperors clearly had access to the best wares! For instance, see this stunning Tang dynasty ewer: 
Ewer in green glaze, Changsha ware, Tang dynasty (618-907)
Its straight handle on the side was a popular feature during the Tang dyansty (618-907). This antique ceramic is very important, because it shows what has inspired the shape of Japanese kyusu teapots.

Next comes a very good example of how putting bringing wares from different countries together results in new understanding. What do you see?
Set of Sencha ustensils, Meiji period, 19th century
This set looks very much like a Chinese Chaozhou gongfu cha set, but it's a Sencha set from the 19th century! We can see that several items were common to the tea culture of both countries. The porcelain qinghua cups are from Jingezhen (or Arita), the pewter tea caddy came from Chaoshan, the teapot has a flat lid (Ju Lun Zhu style) and comes from Yixing.
Woven bamboo tea basket
And this beautiful woven bamboo tea basket was made in China. It was an important item, since it helps the brewer store and move his tea ware. And below we can see the white clay kettle with side handle on a brazier that was used for the Sencha ceremony in Japan. The link with the green Tang ewer is obvious.
White brazier and while clay boiling pot 
This set below is a Gongfucha tea set. (It comes from a private collection, not from the original palace museum). Placed next to the Sencha set, it shows how tea culture was already pan Asian in the 19th century/20th century and how most gongfucha items were also used, copied or reinterpreted in Japan.
Gongfu cha set, late Qing/early Republic
(Note: the students at the Tea Institute at Penn State may have a look at the Chaozhou gongfu cha set in their collection and see how well it compares to this set!...)
The older wares from the original palace collection remain the real stars of the museum. I still recommend its visit and the purchase of this book that has been published with the creation of this exhibition:

Tuesday, March 06, 2018

Porcelain gaiwan vs Yixing zisha and duanni teapots

 During today's tea class, we brewed the same winter 2017 top Hung Shui Oolong from Dong Ding with 3 vessels: a porcelain gaiwan, an Yixing zisha Shipiao and my old Yixing Duanni Tiliang teapot. We started with the porcelain gaiwan in order to experience the taste and aromas of this tea with a neutral material (glazed porcelain).
 It's early March and still cool in Taiwan. This season is a good fit for using Yixing teapots to brew tea, because they stay warm longer than porcelain. So, even if I recommend to use porcelain to better compare different teas, now is still a good time to understand how Yixing teapots improve roasted Oolong. 
 My student Antonio brews the same tea with this zisha Shipiao teapot. The tasting experience is very different from the gaiwan. The first impressions are more muted, more refined. At first, the tea seems smoother and almost weaker, but then the aftertaste builds and builds and builds. Now, the tea feels stronger because it lasts so much longer! The aromas are also a little different. They are not as direct, but seem filtered as if they had been turned into essential oil!
 In parallel, I'm brewing the same tea with my old duanni Tiliang teapot. (It has a similar shape and size as the zisha Shipiao). It performs very similarly in terms of aftertaste, but the smoothing effect goes beyond what the zisha does and the aromas seem to retain a little bit more freshness.
By going back to another brew with the gaiwan, it's obvious that the gaiwan produces lighter fragrances and much less aftertaste because the thin porcelain looses heat much faster than Yixing clay. This loss of flavor wouldn't be such loss with a fresh, lightly fragrant green tea or a high mountain Oolong. However, for a Hung Shui Oolong, the Yixing clay helps emphasize the long aftertaste which is the core character of this tea.
With the right Yixing teapot, we found gold brewing this roasted Oolong!

Tuesday, February 27, 2018

Elagage de bambou

Mon petit bonsai de bambou était devenu trop touffu et je profitai d'une infusion d'un Oolong torréfié pour couper le trop plein de branches. Deux conceptions esthétiques s'affrontent quant à la beauté du bambou à Taiwan. Les couches populaires privilégient l'abondance et plus un bambou a de branches et de feuilles, plus il symbolise la richesse. Mais parmi l'élite culturelle, la beauté du bambou est plus austère. C'est la plante qui s'élève avec finesse vers le ciel. Elle sait résister aux puissants éléments sans casser, mais souvent en courbant l'échine et en souffrant. On aura compris que le bambou représente le lettré lui-même, plutôt solitaire, et menant la vie simple du juste, mais soumis aux caprices des autorités. On peut alors tailler le bambou pour qu'il ne reste plus que quelques branches en fière et digne souffrance.

L'étranger que je suis choisit la voie du milieu, à moins que ce ne soit une troisième voie: je taille sans donner un caractère trop austère, et je décore le Chaxi des branches coupées. La nature est plus présente dans le Chaxi ainsi.

A quoi cela vous fait-il penser? Au calme qui règne après une tempête, quand les arbres ont perdu une partie de leur feuillage?

Ou bien est-ce un symbole du cycle de la nature? Il n'y a pas de vie sans mort. Pour grandir, ce bambou a besoin d'humus, de terre enrichie de feuilles mortes qui se décomposent. Déguster ce thé est aussi un moment de vie où nous consommons des feuilles oxydées et séchées pour y trouver un plaisir tout particulier. Mais le prix du plaisir est la mort de ces feuilles: à force d'infusions nous les séparons de leur âme, leurs arômes!
Au final, je suis bien content d'avoir fait cet élagage. Le bambou est une plante qui a soif  et j'en ai cramé plus d'un lors de précédentes vacances. Or, cette année, mon bonsai a survécu mon absence durant le Nouvel An chinois. Avoir moins de feuilles et de branches à nourir lui a certainement permis de survivre avec moins d'eau. Pour bien vivre, il faut savoir élaguer le superflu et revenir à l'essentiel.

Thursday, February 08, 2018

Chinese New Year vacation starting now

 A quick post to inform you that I've started my Chinese New Year vacation. The online tea boutique is still open, but I won't be able to make any delivery before February 21st.
Stay warm and cheerful with great tea!

Thursday, February 01, 2018

Tea postcards 2018

What is itt?
Every year, I select my 12 best pictures and then let you vote for the best ones on Facebook. This helps me select the pictures I turn into postcards. Here you see all the postcards that are currently available and that I add to your tea orders as little gifts (2 at a time usually). Below, on top, you can see this year's latest 2 postcards: another Chaxi on the beach and a sunset on Qilin lake at the slope of Dong Ding's Oolong plantations.
Vive la tour Eiffel!
In exactly a week, I will start my Chinese New Year vacation. This means I won't ship any order between February 8th and 20th. And, like every winter, I'll head to south Taiwan to enjoy tea on a white sand beach near Kenting. Expect some more pictures like this year's most liked photograph:

I also plan a visit to the southern branch of the National Palace Museum in Chiayi. It has a permanent exhibition about the art and culture of tea in Asia called 'The far-reaching fragrance of Tea'.
Emperor Qianlong's Yixing teapot

Tuesday, January 30, 2018

Winter 2017 Oriental Beauty from Hsin Chu county

The cradle of Oriental Beauty Oolong is located in the small adjacent towns of Beipu and Emei in Hsin Chu county. That's where I visited one of my farmer's beautiful plantations of Qingxin Dapang tea trees last week. Not only is the plantation located on the slopes of a nearby hill (which helps drain excess water from the field), but it's also grown in organic fashion. We can see that the trees are sparse and surrounded by other plants.
While many tea trees see their flowers wilt within days of their bloom, the Qingxin Dapang flowers can last 1 month. I wonder how honey made from tea flowers tastes like?! Would it have some tea scent?
There are also a few banana trees next to this plantation! It's a joy to see tea trees so well integrated in this diverse flora.
Since natural farming means that you let sick and old trees die (instead of treating them with various chemicals), you also need to plant new trees to replace the old. This is what the farmer has recently done on this plantation. He has cut twigs from healthy trees and planted them in the soil so that they would produce roots and grow into identical trees. 2 examples below:
This method requires more effort from the farmer and assumes that the cut branch is healthy. He had to dig holes and bring lots of water to water the planted branches. But this method is sustainable and ensures that what he plants is suited for this place.
It's an important point to grow the cultivar most suitable to your terroir (the natural environment that is formed by the soil and the climate). In fall 2012, I tasted over 10 different OBs made from different cultivars and concluded that Qingxin Dapang is, indeed, the best cultivar for this type of Oolong. That's the reason why this cultivar is most used in Hsin Chu county where farmers specialize in this process.

Winter 2017 Oriental Beauty
As I visited the farmer who produced my 2016 summer Oriental Beauty tradition, I tasted several of his teas and was most thrilled with this winter Oriental Beauty:

It was harvested by hand in Guanxi (near HsinChu, Taiwan) on October 26th and had just been lightly roasted. This production batch came in a bag of 2.5 kg (only!) The nice thing about it is that it's not blended. That's why its taste feels so pure and the aromas are so clear and clean!
I also liked the fact that you could taste the winter character in this OB. Since the weather is cooler, less sunny, the oxidation level of the leaves is lower than in summer. The fragrances have higher notes and are more perfume like. I used barely 2 grams in my silver teapot. Since it's made of buds and recently roasted, I didn't let the tea brew long. That's why the first brew looks rather pale. But its fragrance is magnificent!
It's also a beauty, but a different beauty. It is more pure, refined and elevated. The taste is sweet and clean, but still a little bit dry due to the roasting. Like the 2016 summer OB tradition, this is also an Oolong that is going to improve with time.
The next brews had more richness and sweetness, but still with this wonderful purity and clarity that is visible in the brew! That's why I chose a branch of raw cotton on my Chaxi as a symbol for this natural purity.
My brewing advice for this winter OB is to use fewer leaves, a slow pour and rather short brewing times in order to emphasize the lightness and refinement of its character. It's also a very good tea for aging.

Thursday, January 25, 2018

Hiver, le froid entoure la nature

2017 top puerh cru sauvage de vieux théiers
Inspiration d'hiver.

Le chabu vert et le bambou sont le printemps qui commencent à poindre. Ce sont 3 jours  ensoleillés (comme les coupes) qui suivent des jours frais et sombres (le long tissu bleu et noir).

Des bourgeons blancs (comme neige) de thé puerh sauvage sont les enfants du dernier renouveau saisonnier (au printemps 2017). Je les infuse dans une théière zhuni rouge de couleur festive et chaleureuse sur une assiette qinghua bleu et blanche comme glace.
Le thé chaud nous fait du bien, mais il s'apprécie d'autant plus qu'il fait froid! Les choses qui s'opposent ont besoin l'une de l'autre pour exister et se mettre en valeur.

Ainsi sans froid il n'y aurait pas de bonnes feuilles: le froid de l'hiver oblige les théiers au repos, réduit la prolifération d'insectes nuisibles, la fraicheur de la nuit dans les plantations préserve les arômes les plus fins, et le froid matinal condense la rosée qui nourrit les feuilles en l'absence de pluie. Et finalement, le froid préserve la fraicheur des feuilles de thé qu'on conserve chez soi.
Finalement, un bon thé chaud nous donne le souffle frais! C'est le cas ici tellement le palais est clean et pur après une coupe de ce puerh. Le plaisir du thé est aussi affaire de contrastes!
Le fin mot de ce Chaxi, comme dirait Raphaël Enthoven sur Europe1: L'harmonie n'est pas monotone!